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Formal education

the way of learning that is applied in schools

  • obligatory participation
  • pre-set curriculum that needs to be followed
  • means to a degree or official recognition
  • testing of knowledge through official assessment


Informal education

way of learning:

  • unintentional
  • accidental through daily activities 
  • unstructured



when a methodology or activity is "learner centered" means that the learner is the protagonist of the activity, the planning and the implementation. It means that the materials respond o try to respond to the learners' needs

Learning by doing

way of learning through practice rather than through theory 


Non-formal education

A way of learning:

  • intentionally and organized 
  • voluntary participation
  • participatory & learner centered
  • peer learning
  • learning by doing 
  • no official recognition 


PPP approach

In traditional language teaching approaches, the PPP approach was followed. This means, Presentation, Practice, Production. Firstly, the teacher will present the materials (grammar, topic, vocabulary), then the students will practice this newly learned materials, and then finally, the students will have to produce the same materials in conversations or real-life situations in which they need to use that specific language. 

In TBLT, this approach is inverted, and it starts with the production and only afterwards the presentation of the new material. 



a task is the main activity and core element of the TBLT methodology. It includes an activity that students will do, in which there is a communicative problem to solve. Furthemore, the focus is on conveying meaning, so most important outcome of the task, is to convey the message or to solve the communicative problem. 

Task-based language teaching

Task-Based Language Teaching, or TBLT, is a methodology that uses tasks to encourage students to use authentic language.