Glossary module 5

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The degree of conformity to a correct or precise value, truth, fact or standard: it is the state of being correct, precise or exact.


in language education refers to the systematic process of evaluating and measuring collected data and information on students’ language knowledge, understanding, and ability in order to improve their language learning and development.



refers to the process of utilizing assessment results to gauge and support learning, teaching and program development. Evaluation can take place at four levels:

  • Learner feedback that measures learner reaction to the program;

  • Learner learning that measures learner progress following the learning (through assessments);

  • Learner behaviour that measures observable skills acquired following learning;

  • Learning results that measure the impact of skills/knowledge acquisition on the environment in which learners function post learning.



is an assessment category or criterion most commonly associated with features of speech delivery, such as delivery rate, number of pauses and repetitions, and frequency of breakdowns and self-corrections. In the assessment of writing skills, writing fluency is most often measured by the composition rate, along with other indicators, such as the number of words correctly spelled, sentences written, holistic rating, and so on.


Needs analysis

In the context of second language assessment, needs analysis is the intentional process of collecting data to support curriculum design.


Peer assessment

the assessment by language learners ('peers') of each other’s work to a standard provided by a teacher or as determined by the learners. Peer assessment in language education is commonly used in pairs or small groups to encourage learners to develop the ability to critically review their own and others' language and to foster autonomous learning skills.


Reflective practice

refers to the process teachers should follow to rethink their knowledge of teaching and learning while reflecting on their practices so as to avoid mistakes and repetitions. This reflection allows them to understand how their knowledge and beliefs intertwin in their daily practice.



refers to the ability of language learners to assess their own performance to identify their strengths and weaknesses in the learning process. Self-assessment has been proven useful for promoting learner autonomy and is often used for formative purposes.



For both TBLT and TBLA, a classroom task is defined as an activity that is goal-oriented; is content-focused; has a real outcome; and reflects real-life language use and language needs.

Task based language assessment

is the elicitation and evaluation of language use (across all modalities) for expressing and interpreting meaning, within a well-defined communicative context (and audience), for a clear purpose, towards a valued goal or outcome.